Mishra & Koehler, 2006

The Mishra & Koehler (2006) article is the first and somewhat definitive presentation of the TPCK framework. The complete reference and abstract are given below, as is a link to the original article [pdf format].

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record 108 (6), 1017-1054.

Research in the area of educational technology has often been critiqued for a lack of theoretical grounding. In this article we propose a conceptual framework for educational technology by building on Shulman’s formulation of ‘‘pedagogical content knowledge’’ and extend it to the phenomenon of teachers integrating technology into their pedagogy. This framework is the result of 5 years of work on a program of research focused on teacher professional development and faculty development in higher education. It attempts to capture some of the essential qualities of teacher knowledge required for technology integration in teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted, and situated nature of this knowledge. We argue, briefly, that thoughtful pedagogical uses of technology require the development of a complex, situated form of knowledge that we call Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). In doing so, we posit the complex roles of, and interplay among, three main components of learning environments: content, pedagogy, and technology. We argue that this model has much to offer to discussions of technology integration at multiple levels: theoretical, pedagogical, and methodological. In this article, we describe the theory behind our framework, provide examples of our teaching approach based upon the framework, and illustrate the methodological contributions that have resulted from this work.


  1. I appreciate your good work and your contribution to knowledge really you have awaken the young researchers by given them the right direction for them to excel, thank you future will recognizes and pay you back. Its Bukar Muhammad from Nigeria.

  2. Dear respected Authors,
    I have just develop interest in TPACK. From the little I grasp, I realize that one cannot write a successful Ph. D. thesis on any subject with TPACK without reference to your work . Mine was physics. Pls can I have any relevant material to assist me. Thx.

  3. I am interested Ph D in Nepalese context TPACK model
    and secondary mathematics education.
    TRIBHUVAN university ,Butwal Multiple Campus,
    Lecturer in mathematics education

  4. Dear sir.
    I am Dr. Sarath Warnakulasuriya from Sri Lanka. I did my PhD in Deakin University, Australia. My PhD research was Information Communication Technology in Secondary Science Education in Sri Lanka.

    In my research I check TPACK model suitable to Sri Lanka Secondary Science Education. I introduced to per-service teachers to TPACK model and ask to conduct secondary science lessons. I video the lessons and analyzed the lessons using Nvivo 9.

    I am hoping to do post PhD under Prof Mishra, or Prof Koehler. Please give me grate opportunity to read the post PhD.

    My E mail number is sarathwarnakulasuriya@gmail.com

    Thank you,

    Dr. Sarath Warnakulasuriya

  5. The TPACK model is very useful in teaching learning process.I like the way Mishra and Koehler have urged it out.The big question is; how many of our teachers in the world adapt change?Can’t it be applied to the teaching in both primary and secondary schools?

  6. Thanks for another informative site. Where else could I get that kind of information written in such a perfect approach? I have a mission that I’m simply now working on, and I have been at the glance out for such info.

  7. I have been asked to purchase the article: Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge for a lecturer here at James Cook University, Cairns Australia.

    Please advice how this can be done.
    Cheers, Wendy

  8. Respected Authors,

    Regards! I was much thrilled to see your work on TPCK as my doctoral work is on the same line. I need this and other related articles of yorus on this topic as references in Ph D work. Could you please send me those articles by e-mail? I shall be obliged to you for this kind help.

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